CRM Substitution Roadmaps

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D5.3This report describes the five roadmaps for the substitution of critical raw materials in products and technologies, which are essential for technological, economic and social progress, due to their application in a large number of European industries, i.e. Printed Circuit Boards, permanent magnets, batteries, high-value
alloys and photonics. The report summarizes the insights gained on substitution options, as well as the barriers and gaps encountered, but it does not contain the initial scoping work, which may be obtained on request.

Note: The report has been revised in October to reflect previously erroneous labelling of cobalt as a conflict mineral. Cobalt is not a conflict mineral and any previous reference as such has been removed from the roadmap report. This revised version supersedes any earlier versions.

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